Interpretation of the city-how to design a three-dimensional parking building?
Existing parking problems in China
The parking problem is a static traffic problem in urban development. Static traffic is a form of traffic relative to dynamic traffic. The two are interrelated and affect each other. For a vehicle in a city, it is dynamic when driving and static when parked. Parking facilities are the main content of urban static traffic. With the increase of various vehicles in the city, the demand for parking facilities also continues to increase. If the balance between the two is lost, it is difficult for parking facilities to meet the growing demand for parking space by vehicles, and it will be difficult for cars to park. problem.
Since 2000, the growth rate of motor vehicles in China ’s auto market has averaged 10% to 15%, while the average growth rate of urban roads has been only 2% to 3%. Especially in large cities, the growth of motor vehicle ownership and traffic has far exceeded that of transportation infrastructure. Growth. For example, in Beijing, in the 1990s, the average annual growth rate of cars reached about 30%, especially for private cars. The annual increase rate from 1992 to 1995 reached more than 45%, which is the average annual increase rate of motor vehicles in the city. It has tripled, and in some years the growth rate reached 100%, but the average growth rate of urban roads was only 1.2%, and the growth rate of road area was 3.7%. It is generally considered internationally that the ratio of urban road area (ratio of urban road area to total urban area) should be 25%. 43% in Washington, USA, 35% in New York and Manhattan, 23% in London, 13% in Tokyo, and 11% in Beijing.
On the whole, the emergence of urban parking difficulties is mainly reflected in the contradiction between parking demand and insufficient parking space, the expansion of parking space and insufficient urban land .
Parking building in GTA5 online
At present, the more widely used parking methods in cities in China are: roadside parking, open-air parking, (semi) underground parking, parking buildings and mechanical stereo parking.
Today I introduce you to the three-dimensional parking building !
The parking space of the three-dimensional parking building develops on the ground, parking is relatively concentrated, and access is convenient and quick. The driver parks the vehicle into each floor through the ramp inside the parking building. Its characteristics are low engineering cost and low maintenance cost. Because the facade can open a large area, it is convenient for lighting and ventilation, and it also saves the cost of lighting and ventilation equipment. The parking building is designed to last a long time, generally up to 50 years.
The first case we read today is the parking building in a sandbox game GTA5-online recommended to everyone.
The open world in Grand Theft Auto V is set in the fictional state of San Andreas, and its background is modeled on Southern California. To build the game world, the production team went to Los Angeles for several actual surveys and invited tour guides to travel with architectural historians. A total of about 250,000 photos were taken during these surveys, as well as several hours of videos for reference. They also studied virtual globes and census data to reproduce the geographic and demographic distribution of Los Angeles.
Amsterdam RAI Spiral Parking Lot
Founded in 1893, Amsterdam RAI started as a bicycle manufacturer and has now become one of the world's largest business convention and exhibition centers. The RAI Convention and Exhibition Center was established in 1961, attracting more than 100 million visitors. The architect responsible for the design and construction was Alexander Bodon. In 1989, Benthem Crouwer Architects was honored to take over this task, and completed the design of the Amtrium and Elicium buildings in the next 20 years. The RAI spiral parking lot in Amsterdam is the latest member of the RAI Convention and Exhibition Center complex.
External view of the building
This new multi-purpose parking lot is located beside the A10 ring road in the Zuidas business district of Amsterdam. The building is 30 meters high and has eight floors of parking space. It can accommodate about 1,000 cars. The second floor can be used for meetings and conferences. exhibition. When the RAI has no activity, it can be used as a public parking lot for the public.
General floor plan
The entire building is a simple rectangle. At its western end, two iconic spiral towers are designed, one is used to introduce vehicles to the upper level of the parking lot, and the other is used as an exit to allow vehicles to return to the street. There are many RAI vehicles in Amsterdam, so diverting the incoming and outgoing vehicles can greatly improve the efficiency of parking. The tower is constructed of prefabricated concrete elements, with two huge spirals facing each other, becoming landmarks along the A10. At night, it will be lit by blue LED lights, and its elegant spiral shape will become more noticeable.
The first floor plan
The façade of the parking lot is composed of vertical thin plates. This element is used many times in the RAI building and is an external connection between the complex buildings. Aluminium sheets on the parking lot facade are arranged at intervals to make the building transparent and maintain a certain degree of privacy; the gap between the sheets allows the wind to flow into the building, avoiding the use of mechanical ventilation; and the angle and orientation of the sheets can also reach Rain cover effect.
Lamelae on the façade
to sum up
Based on the analysis of the external space elements and internal space elements of the parking building architecture design, we can see that the core problem that the excellent parking building design needs to solve is the coordinated design of the traffic space and the parking space . At the same time , the four basic principles of convenience, safety, economy and humanity should be observed.
With the rapid development of China's urbanization level, the number of cars in cities will increase, but the available land will become less and less. The three-dimensional parking building is still one of the main means to solve parking problems in the future for a long time. With the development of science and technology and the advancement of corresponding technologies, there will also be a certain breakthrough in the design and promotion of parking building architecture.
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